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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

What factors hinder ethnic minority women in rural China from getting antenatal care? A retrospective data analysis

Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is one of the main transmission routes of HIV, and the probability of MTCT can be dramatically reduced with comprehensive interventions. In southwest and western regions in China, the level of development in r ...

Characteristics of stakeholder involvement in systematic and rapid reviews: a methodological review in the area of health services research

Objective Engaging stakeholders in reviews is considered to generate more relevant evidence and to facilitate dissemination and use. As little is known about stakeholder involvement, we assessed the characteristics of their engagement in systematic and rap ...

Detection of pulmonary nodules: a clinical study protocol to compare ultra-low dose chest CT and standard low-dose CT using ASIR-V

Introduction Lung cancer screening in individuals at risk has been recommended by various scientific institutions. One of the main concerns for CT screening is repeated radiation exposure, with the risk of inducing malignancies in healthy individuals. Ther ...

Patient journey following lumbar discectomy surgery: protocol for a single-centre qualitative analysis of the patient rehabilitation experience (DiscJourn)

Introduction Lumbar discectomy is a widely used surgical procedure internationally with the majority of patients experiencing significant benefit. However, approximately 20% of patients report suboptimal functional recovery and quality of life. The impact ...

Patients information needs and attitudes about post-treatment surveillance for colorectal cancer in the United States: a multi-perspective, mixed methods study

Objective We sought to determine patients’ informational needs for post-treatment surveillance and elicit clinicians’ and patient advocates’ (ie, stakeholders) opinions regarding what patients should know about post-treatment surveillance in the USA. Desig ...

Psychometrics properties of the Team Interaction Scale and influencing factors of team interaction of tertiary hospital physicians in China: a cross-sectional study

Objectives To administer a cross-cultural adaptation of the Team Interaction Scale (TIS), test its psychometric properties and investigate influencing factors of team interactions in a physician population in Chinese tertiary hospitals. Design Cross-sectio ...

Study protocol: NITric oxide during cardiopulmonary bypass to improve Recovery in Infants with Congenital heart defects (NITRIC trial): a randomised controlled trial

Introduction Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of infant mortality. Many infants with CHD require corrective surgery with most operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB triggers a systemic inflammatory response which is associate ...

Health effect research on Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (HEROS) in Korea: a cohort profile

Purpose The Hebei Spirit Oil Spill occurred on 7 December 2007 and resulted in the spillage of 12 547 kl of crude oil on the coastline near Taean. Historically, this was the largest oil spill in Korean water. The health effect research on Hebei Spirit Oil ...

Clinical practice outcomes and differential results in maternal and neonatal morbidity among pregnant women in Spain who are candidates for a normal birth: a cross-sectional study

Objective To determine the percentage of pregnant women who are potential candidates for a normal birth in the region of Cantabria, Spain. Also, to compare the main clinical practice outcome indicators and the rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity among ...

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