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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Relationship between general practice capitation funding and the quality of primary care in England: a cross-sectional, 3-year study

Objective To explore the relationship between general practice capitation funding and quality ratings based on general practice inspections. Design Cross-sectional study pooling 3 years of primary care administrative data. Setting UK primary care. Particip ...

Collateral grade of the Willis' circle predicts outcomes of acute intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion before thrombectomy

PCG, when catalogued according to the integrity of the circle of Willis, had a strong power to predict prognoses in AIS patients with iICAO treated by EVMT, and favorable functional outcomes were more often achieved in patients in whom both the AcoA and i ...

Phylogeography and population genetics of pine butterflies: Sky islands increase genetic divergence

The high‐throughput sequencing approach of ddRADSeq was used to investigate the phylogeography and population structure of two closely related butterfly species restricted to mountain habitats. Despite their flight capabilities and the proximity between s ...

Pregnancy outcomes for women with non-criteria antiphospholipid syndrome after anticoagulant therapy

We found that although the interest in non-criteria obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (also called seronegative APS) in women has increased, only few studies have focused on the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes. We conducted ...

Successful versus unsuccessful instrumental deliveries – predictors and obstetric outcomes

The purpose of this study was to examine instrumental births in a multi-ethnic population to assess the factors associated with success and failure in instrumental births. ...

Dyslipidaemia prevalence and associated risk factors in the United Arab Emirates: a population-based study

Objectives To determine and describe the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidaemia and its associated risk factors among an adult Emirati population. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Adults living in the Northern Emirates. Participants ...

Evaluation of a 1-hour troponin algorithm for diagnosing myocardial infarction in high-risk patients admitted to a chest pain unit: the prospective FAST-MI cohort study

Objective This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the 1-hour troponin algorithm for diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) without persistent ST-segment elevations (non-ST-segment MI (NSTEMI)) in a cohort with a high prevalence of MI. ...

Applying a whole systems lens to the general practice crisis: cross-sectional survey looking at usage of community pharmacy services in England by patients with long-term respiratory conditions

Objective UK policy initiatives aiming to extend community pharmacy services to moderate patient demands and to reduce general practitioners’ (GPs) workload have had limited success. This study used marketing theory to identify factors that could influence ...

Evidence of potential overdiagnosis and overtreatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents: protocol for a scoping review

Introduction Worldwide, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates in children and adolescents have been increasing consistently over the past decades, fuelling a debate about the underlying reasons for this trend. While many hypothesi ...

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