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Public Health Well

Structure and Control of Healthy Worker Effects in Studies of Pregnancy Outcomes

AbstractMuch of the literature on the healthy worker effect focuses on studies of chronic disease and mortality; however, when studying pregnancy outcomes, these effects might differ because of the short, defined risk periods of most pregnancy outcomes. Th ...

Stress Disorders and Dementia in the Danish Population

AbstractThere is an association between stress and dementia. However, less is known about dementia among persons with varied stress responses and sex differences in these associations. We used this population-based cohort study to examine dementia among pe ...

Causal Mediation Analysis With Observational Data: Considerations and Illustration Examining Mechanisms Linking Neighborhood Poverty to Adolescent Substance Use

AbstractUnderstanding the mediation mechanisms by which an exposure or intervention affects an outcome can provide a look into what has been called a “black box” of many epidemiologic associations, thereby providing further evidence of a relationship and p ...

Evaluation of the Performance of Algorithms That Use Serial Hepatitis C RNA Tests to Predict Treatment Initiation and Sustained Virological Response Among Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

AbstractThe structure of electronic medical record data prevents easy population-level monitoring of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and cure. Using an HCV registry from a public hospital system in Atlanta, Georgia, we developed multiple algorithm ...

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Carriers of Balanced Robertsonian Translocations: A National Cohort Study

AbstractA balanced robertsonian translocation (rob) results from fusion of 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Carriers are phenotypically normal and are often diagnosed because of recurrent miscarriages, infertility, or aneuploid offspring. Mortality and site-spec ...

Gestational Age at Arrest of Development: An Alternative Approach for Assigning Time at Risk in Studies of Time-Varying Exposures and Miscarriage

AbstractThe time between arrest of pregnancy development and miscarriage represents a window in which the pregnancy is nonviable and not developing. In effect, the pregnancy loss has already occurred, and additional exposure cannot influence its outcome. H ...

Multinomial Extension of Propensity Score Trimming Methods: A Simulation Study

AbstractCrump et al. (Biometrika. 2009;96(1):187–199), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):843–854), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res. 2013;2013(3):11–20) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as a means to improve efficiency (Crump) or re ...

Guideline-Based Physical Activity and Survival Among US Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

AbstractThe survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonme ...

Shift Work and Respiratory Infections in Health-Care Workers

AbstractRecently, there has been interest in whether shift work may enhance susceptibility to infection. Our aim was to determine whether shift workers in the health-care field have a higher incidence, duration, and/or severity of influenza-like illness (I ...

Associations Between Features of Placental Morphology and Birth Weight in Dichorionic Twins

AbstractLow birth weight is associated with perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality, and may be a result of abnormal placental development and function. In studies of singletons, associations have been reported between features of placental morphol ...

An Investigation of Selection Bias in Estimating Racial Disparity in Stroke Risk FactorsThe REGARDS Study

AbstractSelection due to survival or attrition might bias estimates of racial disparities in health, but few studies quantify the likely magnitude of such bias. In a large national cohort with moderate loss to follow-up, we contrasted racial differences in ...

Prehospital delay and its associated psychosocial factors in patients presenting with acute appendicitis in a southwestern city in China: a single-centre prospective observational study

Objective Prehospital delay is common among patients with acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to measure the association of a wide range of psychosocial factors with the prehospital delay among adult patients with acute appendicitis in a southwes ...

Does hospital information technology infrastructure promote the implementation of clinical practice guidelines? A multicentre observational study of Japanese hospitals

Objectives It remains unclear whether insufficient information technology (IT) infrastructure in hospitals hinders implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and affects healthcare quality. The objectives of this study were to describe the prese ...

Placement and sales of tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy in tobacco-free and tobacco-selling pharmacies in Northern California: an observational study

Objectives Although tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the USA, it is routinely sold in pharmacies. In 2008, San Francisco became the first city in the USA to pass a tobacco-free pharmacy ordinance. Over the next decade, 171 municipalitie ...

DESKK Study- Development and testing of a dementia-specific respite care concept with a mobility and counselling programme: study protocol

Introduction Specific mobility programmes can delay functional decline in people with dementia (PwD). Family caregivers (FCs) can be relieved from care-related burden by counselling services. Respite care is a short-term inpatient care service (1–8 weeks o ...

Does the Patient-Reported Apnea Questionnaire (PRAQ) increase patient-centredness in the daily practice of sleep centres? a mixed-methods study

Objectives The objective of this exploratory study was to see how the Patient-Reported Apnea Questionnaire (PRAQ) may impact the daily clinical practice of sleep centres, and why it may or may not work as expected. The hypotheses were tested that this pati ...

Trends in the receipt of medicines information among Finnish adults in 1999-2014: a nationwide repeated cross-sectional survey

Objective The aim of this study was to examine long-term trends in the receipt of medicines information (MI) among adult medicine users from 1999 to 2014. Design Repeated cross-sectional postal survey from the years 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008–2014. Setting ...

Does a simple web-based intervention facilitate the articulation of patients unvoiced agenda for a consultation with their diabetologists? A qualitative study

Objective To explore whether a preconsultation web-based intervention enables patients with diabetes to articulate their agenda in a consultation in the hospital outpatient clinic with their diabetologist. Methods and design A qualitative study embedded in ...

Molidustat for the treatment of renal anaemia in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: design and rationale of three phase III studies

Introduction New medications for anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are desirable, owing to the limitations of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), the current standard of care. Molidustat is a novel hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-h ...

Molidustat for the treatment of renal anaemia in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: design and rationale of two phase III studies

Introduction Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Owing to the limitations of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), the current standard of care, there is a need to develop new therapies. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hyd ...

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