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Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry

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AOPPs Induce MCP-1 Expression by Increasing ROS-Mediated Activation of the NF-κB Pathway in Rat Mesangial Cells: Inhibition by Sesquiterpene Lactones

Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in extracellular matrix accumulation through macrophage recruitment and activation in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study examined wh ...

CCK1-Receptor Stimulation Protects Against Gut Mediator-Induced Lung Damage During Endotoxemia

Background/Aims: Cholecystokinin 1-receptor (CCK1-R) activation by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) absorption stimulates vago-vagal reflex pathways in the brain stem. The present study determines whether this reflex also activates the cholinergic anti-inflam ...

MicroRNAs Contribute to Promyelocyte Apoptosis in As2O3-Treated APL Cells

Background: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), an ancient drug used in traditional Chinese medicine, has substantial anticancer activities, especially in the treatment of patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however the underlying mechanisms ...

Modulation of HERG K+ Channels by Chronic Exposure to Activators and Inhibitors of PKA and PKC: Actions Independent of PKA and PKC Phosphorylation

Background: Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel is the major molecular component of the native rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) that is a crucial determinant of cardiac repolarization. Impairment of IKr/HERG function is commonly believ ...

Synopsis of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Lake Cumberland Biological Transport Group and the Second Biannual Meeting of the Pendrin Consortium

Ion transporters are the molecular basis for ion homeostasis of the cell and the whole organism. The anion exchanger pendrin is only one of a number of examples where a complete or partial loss of function and/or deregulation of expression of ion transport ...

A Molecular Analysis of the Na+-Independent Cation Chloride Cotransporters

The homologous genes encoding the electroneutral solute carrier family 12A (SLC12A) were identified more than 20 years ago, however, over the last few years, it has become clear that each of the genes within this family potentially encode for more than one ...

Betaine Transport in Kidney and Liver: Use of Betaine in Liver Injury

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is an important human nutrient obtained from a variety of foods and also can be synthesized from choline. Betaine is much more abundant in kidney and liver compared to other mammalian organs. The principal role of b ...

Use of the Operon Structure of the C. elegans Genome as a Tool to Identify Functionally Related Proteins

One of the most pressing challenges in the post genomic era is the identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), as these are essential in understanding the cellular physiology of health and disease. Experimental techniques su ...

Parallel Changes in Intracellular Water Volume and pH Induced by NH3/NH4+ Exposure in Single Neuroblastoma Cells

Background: Increased blood levels of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+), i.e. hyperammonemia, leads to cellular brain edema in humans with acute liver failure. The pathophysiology of this edema is poorly understood. This is partly due to incomplete unders ...

Sulphate and Chloride-Dependent Potassium Transport in Human Erythrocytes are Affected by Crude Venom from Nematocysts of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

Background: It has been reported that biologically active compounds extracted from Cnidaria venom may induce damage by oxidative stress. Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to oxidative stresses, which can contribute to sulphydril (SH-) group oxidation an ...

Prebiotic Properties of Galursan HF 7K on Mouse Gut Microbiota

Background: With the rise of antibiotic resistance, new alternatives are being sought to effectively modulate the characteristics of gut microbiota to obtain pathogen resistance without the use of antibiotics. In the past, an oligosaccharide derivative of ...

Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically adv ...

Short- and Long- Term Effects of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Glutathione Homeostasis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

Background: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE), a model for studying the effects of tobacco smoke in vivo and in vitro, induces cell oxidative stress and affects the antioxidative glutathione system. We evaluated the impact of CSE on airway epithelial cells an ...

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Tracking of Chelerythrine, a Na+/K+ Pump Inhibitor, into Cytosol and Plasma Membrane Fractions of Human Lens Epithelial Cell Cultures

Background/Aims: The quaternary benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid (QBA) chelerythrine (CET) is a pro-apoptotic drug and Na+/K+ pump (NKP) inhibitor in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). In order to obtain further insight into the mechanism of NKP inhibition ...

Mouse Models for Pendrin-Associated Loss of Cochlear and Vestibular Function

The human gene SLC26A4 and the mouse ortholog Slc26a4 code for the protein pendrin, which is an anion exchanger expressed in apical membranes of selected epithelia. In the inner ear, pendrin is expressed in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the end ...

Oxygen Modulates the Glutathione Peroxidase Activity during the L6 Myoblast Early Differentiation Process

Aim: This work aims to study the regulation of the glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in myoblasts from the L6 line exposed to 21%, 5% and 1% O2 during the cell differentiation. Material and Methods: Rat L6 myoblasts were grown in 1%, 5% or 21 ...

Krüppel-Like Factor 5 Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis through Upregulation of Sox4

Background: Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), a member of zinc finger class of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, has attracted attention because of its important regulatory activities linked to diverse functions such as cell growth, proliferation, diffe ...

Expression of Amyloid-Associated miRNAs in Both the Forebrain Cortex and Hippocampus of Middle-Aged Rat

Background: Aging is associated with the gradual cognitive decline and shows the typical senile plaque formation in the brain, which results from the aggregation of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide following the abnormal proteolytic processing of amyloid precurs ...

Melatonin Inhibits mTOR-Dependent Autophagy during Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion

Background: Autophagy is a self-digestion system responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis and interacts with reactive oxygen species produced during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Melatonin (MLT) is a potent and endogenous anti-oxidant that has benef ...

Saikosaponin-D Enhances Radiosensitivity of Hepatoma Cells under Hypoxic Conditions by Inhibiting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

Background: Our previous study revealed that the combination of Saikosaponin-d (SSd) and radiation is more effective in the treatment of liver cancer than the application of either of these monotherapeutic methods. However, the molecular mechanisms of the ...

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Peer-reviewed research articles are not included in the Health Well's catalogues which principally focus on "grey literature". 

On this page you will find summaries of research articles published in Open Access Journals and drawn down by RSS feeds from those journals . These journals cover about a quarter of all peer-reviewed journal articles and so are not comprehensive. In addition, the Health Well's topic-managers supplement these summaries with research articles from topic-related online journals.

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