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Decreased Leptin Is Associated with Alterations in Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

10 May 2019

Background: Leptin has been shown to stimulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in vivo and vitro. Its role in thyroid axis regulation after weight loss induced by bariatric surgery is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of leptin on weight loss and thyroid function variation induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in euthyroid individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: 65 Chinese individuals with obesity and T2DM who underwent RYGB, and 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this retrospective study. Participants were evaluated for changes in anthropometric parameters, metabolic indexes, thyroid function, and leptin levels before and 12 months after surgery. Results: After RYGB, all of these patients experienced significant weight reduction and improved glucose control. Metabolic parameters were significantly ameliorated after surgery compared with baseline. Thyroid hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined in parallel. Median (IQR) plasma leptin levels decreased from 33.7 ng/mL (17.9–63.1) to 10.3 ng/mL (4.0–18.5). Pearson correlation analysis showed that TSH was significantly positively correlated with body mass index, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leptin. Multiple stepwise linear regression indicated that leptin and CRP were independent factors affecting TSH. The β coefficients were 0.38 (p = 0.001) and 0.32 (p = 0.004), respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between ΔTSH and Δleptin (r = 0.33, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Decreased or normalized TSH levels after weight loss induced by RYGB might be mediated by the decline in leptin. There could be cross talk between adipose tissue and the HPT axis.
Obes Facts 2019;12:272–280

Click here to view the full article which appeared in Obesity Facts: The European Journal of Obesity