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Biology, Vol. 5, Pages 42: The Potential of Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

08 Nov 2016

Biology, Vol. 5, Pages 42: The Potential of Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Biology doi: 10.3390/biology5040042

Authors:
Ana Murillo
Diana DiMarco
Maria Fernandez

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition. Dietary carotenoids including astaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin have been demonstrated to be potent antioxidants as well as to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies report the protective effect(s) of these carotenoids against different conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, age-related macular degeneration, and liver diseases. In this review, we will focus on the effects of these carotenoids in the prevention or reduction of NAFLD as seen in epidemiological observations and clinical trials, as well as the suggested mechanism of action derived from animal and cell studies.

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