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Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 2144: Increased Anti-Inflammatory Effects on LPS-Induced Microglia Cells by Spirulina maxima Extract from Ultrasonic Process

26 May 2019

Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, Pages 2144: Increased Anti-Inflammatory Effects on LPS-Induced Microglia Cells by Spirulina maxima Extract from Ultrasonic Process

Applied Sciences doi: 10.3390/app9102144

Authors:
Woon Yong Choi
Jae-Hun Sim
Jung-Youl Lee
Do Hyung Kang
Hyeon Yong Lee

The Spirulina maxima exact from a non-thermal ultrasonic process (UE) contains 17.5 mg/g of total chlorophyll, compared to 6.24 mg/g of chlorophyll derived from the conventional 70% ethanol extraction at 80 °C for 12 h (EE). The UE also showed relatively low cytotoxicity against murine microglial cells (BV-2) and inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediators, NO and PGE2. The UE also effectively suppresses both mRNA expression and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, TNF-α gene and protein production were most strongly down-regulated, while IL-6 was the least affected by all ranges of treatment concentrations. This work first demonstrated a quantitative correlation between mRNA expression and the production of cytokines, showing that suppression of TNF-α gene expression was most significantly correlated with its secretion. These results clearly proved that the anti-inflammatory effects of Spirulina extract from a nonthermal ultrasonic process, which yielded high concentrations of intact forms of chlorophylls, were increased two-fold compared to those of conventional extracts processed at high temperature.

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