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Analysis of bacteriological pollution and the detection of antibiotic resistance genes of prevailing bacteria emanating from pig farm seepage

09 Nov 2018

Bacteria pollution and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) emanating from pig farms are an important public health concern due to its possible transfer to humans. Pig farms may be possible potential reservoir of AMR that can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria in humans through pork, direct contact with pigs, or release of AMR bacteria from porcine manure into the environment thus resulting in transfer of AMR genes. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess the level of bacteriological pollution emanating from the pig farm seepage and to identify the resident antibiotic resistant genes of prevailing culturable bacteria.


Management and disposal of pig farm seepage constitute a serious environmental challenge, and seepage discharge from agricultural waste‐water is considered to be one of the greatest contributors of organic substances, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of bacteriological pollution and to identify the resident antibiotic‐resistant genes of culturable bacteria from a studied pig farm seepage. Enumeration of the viable bacterial cell of plated bacteria suspensions (10−1 to 10−8 cfu/mL) was performed; also, identification of pure bacterial colonies was done using an API 20E bacterial identification kit. CLSI guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were adopted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility/resistance of the cultured bacterial isolates. Identification of resident‐resistant genes was done using molecular biology procedures. The results on viable cells in seepage samples ranged from 4.30 × 102 to 1.29 × 109 cfu/mL. Pseudomonas luteola, Enterococcus vulneris, Salmonella choleraesuis spp arizonae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabillis etc. were isolated from the pig farm soil samples. Almost all of the cultured isolates were resistant to Penicillin G, Vancomycin, Oxytetracycline, Spectinomycin, and Lincomycin. The most frequent resistant genes detected in the isolates were Van A, Van B, InuA, aph (3”)‐llla, blaTEM, Otr A, and Otr B. It was inferred from the study that Pig farm seepage has the ability to cause bacterial pollution that may negatively impact the natural environment, by introducing bacteria pathogens that harbor antibiotic‐resistant genes.

Click here to view the full article which appeared in MicrobiologyOpen